At Collective we are heavily relying on machine learning and predictive modeling to run digital advertising business. All decisions about what ad to show at this particular time to this particular user are made by machine learning models (some of them are real time, and some of them are offline).
We have a lot of projects that uses machine learning, common name for all of them can be Audience Modeling, as they all are trying to predict audience conversion (CTR, Viewability Rate, etc…) based on browsing history, behavioral segments and other type of predictors.
For most of new development we use Spark and Spark MLLib. It is a awesome project, however we found that some nice tools/libraries that are widely used for example in R are missing in Spark. In order to add missing features that we would really like to have in Spark, we created Spark Ext - Spark Extensions Library.
Spark Ext on Github: https://github.com/collectivemedia/spark-ext
I’m going to show simple example of combining Spark Ext with Spark ML pipelines for predicting user conversions based geo and browsing history data.
Spark ML pipeline example: SparkMlExtExample.scala
I’m using dataset with 2 classes, that will be used for solving classification problem (user converted or not). It’s created with dummy data generator, so that these 2 classes can be easily separated. It’s pretty similar to real data that usually available in digital advertising.
Browsing History Log
History of web sites that were visited by user.
Geo Location Log
Latitude/Longitude impression history.
Transforming Predictors Data
As you can see predictors data (sites and geo) is in long format, each
cookie has multiple rows associated with it,
and it’s in general is not a good fit for machine learning.
cookie to be a primary key, and all other data should form
Inspired by R
reshape2 packages. Convert long
DataFrame with values
for each key into wide
DataFrame, applying aggregation function if single
key has multiple values.
Google S2 Geometry Cell Id Transformer
The S2 Geometry Library is a spherical geometry library, very useful for manipulating regions on the sphere (commonly on Earth) and indexing geographic data. Basically it assigns unique cell id for each region on the earth.
Good article about S2 library: Google’s S2, geometry on the sphere, cells and Hilbert curve
For example you can combine S2 transformer with Gather to get from
K-V pairs, where key will be
S2 cell id.
Depending on a level you can assign all people in Greater New York area (level = 4) into one cell, or you can index them block by block (level = 12).
Assembling Feature Vector
K-V pairs from result of
Gather are cool, and groups all the information about cookie into single row, however they can’t be used
as input for machine learning. To be able to train a model, predictors data needs to be represented as a vector of doubles. If all features are continuous and
numeric it’s easy, but if some of them are categorical or in
gathered shape, it’s not trivial.
Encodes categorical key-value pairs using dummy variables.
Note that it’s 3 unique cell id values, that gives 3 columns in final feature vector.
Optionally apply dimensionality reduction using
- Top coverage, is selecting categorical values by computing the count of distinct users for each value, sorting the values in descending order by the count of users, and choosing the top values from the resulting list such that the sum of the distinct user counts over these values covers c percent of all users, for example, selecting top sites covering 99% of users.
Spark ML Pipelines
Spark ML Pipeline - is new high level API for Spark MLLib.
A practical ML pipeline often involves a sequence of data pre-processing, feature extraction, model fitting, and validation stages. For example, classifying text documents might involve text segmentation and cleaning, extracting features, and training a classification model with cross-validation. Read More.
In Spark ML it’s possible to split ML pipeline in multiple independent stages, group them together in single pipeline and run it with Cross Validation and Parameter Grid to find best set of parameters.
Put It All together with Spark ML Pipelines
Gather encoder is a natural fit into Spark ML Pipeline API.
New Spark ML API makes machine learning much more easier. Spark Ext is good example of how is it possible to create custom transformers/estimators that later can be used as a part of bigger pipeline, and can be easily shared/reused by multiple projects.
Full code for example application is available on Github.